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Archive for the ‘Maritime’ Category

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Mask Clearing and Replacing  

Sunday, November 11th, 2018

When you are first learning how to dive. You learn basic skills in the pool before you move to open water. One of the most basic is clearing your mask. There are a couple of reasons you will have to clear your mask. It isn’t sitting right on our face, and it is leaking a little. You are diving with a group of people, and you get kicked in the face, and your mask gets knocked off. This is a skill you should always practice, especially if you have not dove in a long time. No matter how often you dive being good at the basic skills will always pay off.

This is one of the most basic skills to have, but it is also one of the most important. Let’s say you are doing a 3-hour night dive. About 15mins into it your mask starts leaking. You have to clear it every couple minutes. So you decide to change out your mask. This could be a quick thing, or if you have never practiced this, it isn’t going to help at all.

Leaking mask 

After you have inhaled slightly press the top part of your mask to your forehead while blowing slowly through your nose. Tilt your head back slightly looking up while exhaling through your nose. Start to exhale thru your nose slowly. Watch for bubbles if you close to your target. The water will slowly start to leave. You don’t have to do this fast.

Flooded mask

This is just as easy as clearing a partially flooded mask. Let say you are diving in a group and someone kicks you in the face knocking your mask off. First put your mask back on, make sure that you have a good seal and there isn’t anything in its way, like part of your dive hood. Then using the same method above to clear it. Take your time. If you go to fast you will push out more air then water. So go slow and don’t waste your air. If you are really deep when you do this, there will be more pressure, making it a little harder to push the water out. Sometimes it is better to leave the mask strap off and just let the water pressure and your hand hold the mask to your face. Once you have some air in your mask then you should put your mask strap on.

If you are only able to dive a couple of times a year. Then you need to get in the water and practice your basic skills, and this is one that will help a lot. There is nothing worse than being on a night dive, and your mask won’t stop leaking, and you can’t see anything. The best way to perfect this skill is to practice it over and over again in a controlled environment like a swimming pool. The primary keys for being able to clear a flooded mask is to relax. This is the reason you had to do all those flutter kicks on the side of the pool with your mask full of water. Lastly, if you have to do a 3-hour dive and you go thru all these steps, and nothing works, well you at least get a good story out of it.

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Clearing Your Ears

Sunday, November 4th, 2018

The inability to clear ears not is one of main reasondivers cant start a diver or finish it if they cannot clear at the start. It is easy to clear/equalize your ears almost all the time. Even the best of divers can have trouble clearing on a dive. But with a few of these technic’s I hope that you won’t have to end a dive because of ear problems. Some of these also work for skydiving or flying. It is always a good practice to try and clear your ears before you even get into the water. At your dive brief, the Dive Supervisor should ask everyone if they canclear their ears. 


This is the most common way to equalize. I am sure you learned it when you first started to swim. This method teaches you to pinch your nose so that no air can pass through your nostrils, and then gently “blow” your nose. This forces air into your inner ear space, equalizing the pressure within to the outside pressure often with an audible popping or clicking sound. The key to this is the word “gently.” Don’t blow your eardrums out before you dive.


To perform this maneuver, you thrust your jaw forward.  This slight shift in your natural anatomy will cause the Eustachian Tube to straighten and open, thus allowing gases to travel in the direction of higher pressure to lower pressure until full equilibration occurs.

Voluntary tubal opening

Try yawning with your mouth closed by contracting the muscles in the back of the roof of your mouth and throat while pushing your jaw forward and down. Tensing and stretching the muscles pulls the eustachian tubes open.


The Toynbee technique of clearing your ears is to pinch your nose and try to swallow. This tenses the muscles in the throat and soft palate to pull the tubes open, while your tongue compresses air against them. This results in a decreased pressure against the middle ear and Eustachian Tube, which will open in response.


This is a combination of Valsalva and Toynbee. Pinch your nose and then blow against your closed nose while swallowing at the same time.

If your ears are particularly stubborn while trying the equalizing methods tilt your head from side to side or look up towards the surface. It helps stretch the folds surrounding the eustachian tubes making it easier to open them.


First, it is not recommended to take anything before you dive. If you have to dive and do take a decongestant, make sure it will last for the duration of the dive.

Good Luck and I hope this helps.

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Combat Swimmer Gear

Sunday, October 28th, 2018

When conducting combat swimmer operations you will need to have a certain amount of gear on you. This gear will depend on a of couple things. First what you will be doing during the dive, second what you will be doing at the end of the dive. If you are just doing a straight up dive and never leaving the water you can get away with just a gun belt with maybe a couple extra pouches for an extra mask, mask strap or fin straps. If you plan on conducting a ship attack or a raid, you will need more then just a pistol belt. This will be up to the diver and the mission requirements.

Gear Common to all

Items to have on you at all times.

– Gun Belt

– Pistol Holster

– Pistol Mag Pouch

– Water pouch and bottle.

– Radio pouch

– E and E kit

– First aid kit

– Extra mask/ mask strap/ fin strap

– Knife

– Signaling device, strobe/ flares

Gun Belt

There is a lot of them out there right now. There are many things you need to think of when setting it up. You need it to be able to easily expand the belt for the type of thermal protection you will be wearing, IE wetsuit /drysuit thickness.  You need to always have your pistol holster and mag pouches in the same place for muscle memory. Other things to think of are, will you be climbing? If so can the belt be used as a harness by adding leg loops or can it be put over a climbing harness? Can you swim with it on without it rubbing the hell out of your legs? Items like the S+S Precision gear retention track are a great way to move items around with little effort. Lastly a good set of suspender’s will help keep your belt in place and stop it from spinning as you swim.

Pistol Holster– One of the things you need to look at for this is, where you want it to sit, if you want it on your thigh, on your hip or a spot in the middle. If you have it on your thigh you need to make sure it does not move around as you are swimming. It also needs to be able to be easily moved if you have to adjust your belt for the think ness of your wetsuit. It also needs to be able to lock your pistol in so it will not fall out; a bungee is a good item for it to have to lock the pistol in but that can also get stuff on something. Should it have a flap cover to protect the gun a little from small things in the water? With all this stuff it should be able to drain water fast.

Mag pouch –They need to be able to keep your magazines in place when you are diving and be able to get to them out fast when needed. Keeping them free of items in the water and be able to drain water fast. This goes for everything you carry anything it. A good mag pouch is great for carrying an extra mask.

Water Pouch- Be able to carry the water bottle you use. A Nalgene bottle is a great bottle to use, as it’s easy to fill in the field. It also doesn’t take up as much room on a belt.  Typical tactical Nalgene bottle pouches have a mess bottle that drains water fast. Depending on if you have to carry something on your back or not you can also use a Camelbak on long dives when it is hot, it’s nice to drink something other then seawater when your legs start to cramp up.

Radio pouch– as radios advance it means that the people at the TOC want to know more and more what you are doing and when you are doing it. So that means that you might have to take a small radio with you to maintain comms, you might have to take along a survival radio. They can be one of the same but you might have to carry two. As one is none and two is well two is twice as much to carry.

E and E kit -Your E and E/R kit can just be a candy bar and some money to pay some people off or it might be more extensive, like having way to purify water, start a fire and kill a bear. No matter what you have, it needs to be waterproof and negatively buoyant as will everything on this list. You can laminate dollar bills in between two 3×5 cards, so it looks like they are just 3×5 cards for write info on. Then if you need the money just rip them open. This way they are hidden and waterproof. Most good kits are small and can be used for about every situation just by adding one or two items depending on what you are doing. If you have to dump all your gear for whatever reason, make sure you have your kit on you separate from everything else.

Extra straps / Masks- It is best to keep an extra mask/ mask strap and an extra fin strap on you. The extra mask should be the same mask that you are diving. You can put an extra pouch on your dive rig straps and put the mask in there. You can also switch your mask strap out to one of the newer comfort straps. They are made of the same martial that ski goggle straps are made of. As for an extra fin strap you can keep that in there also. You need to have a plan on how to change your fin strap out. This will depend on how it breaks. If it breaks in the middle on the strap, it’s not as bad as if it rips away from the fin and takes some of the fin with it. Most fins have the ability to replace the rubber strap with a  steel spring version. Cave divers started using screen door springs because they wanted something that was extremely reliable. They almost never break. They have them for Jet Fins, Twin Jet max and also the Seawing Nova’s.

Knife– Knives are very personal, and everyone has the one that they like. The main thing to remember about your knife is have it in a place that you can reach it on a dive. Some people like it on their legs others like it on their waist. Some people have one on the leg and on their chest (again one is none). Keep it sharp and clean.

Signal devices – You can and probably do carry both a strobe and a flare when diving. The Flare is for emergencies and a strobe for overt and covert signaling. Both need to be waterproof and easily accessible if needed. The bad think about a flare is they are a onetime use. So make it count if you are going to use it. Almost all that are geared towards the military can handle a combat swimmer dive. Lastly you can carry a signal mirror. It is 100% waterproof and never needs batteries.

No matter what gear you take on a dive you make sure it is probably maintained. Make sure you prepare for the conditions and environment you will be in and adapt you gear and E+E kit for it.

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Buoyancy

Sunday, October 21st, 2018

Buoyancy is key to a lot of things. It helps make the dive easier in a lot of ways. When using a closed circuit rig (CCR) it keeps you from rocketing to the surface, it prevents you from dropping to the bottom when you stop to fix your gear or “Dräger” talk/ yelling at your dive buddy.

There are two keys to buoyancy: balance and breathing

The two significant factors in achieving neutral buoyancy.

• 1st Wear the right amount of weight for the dive. This will differ depending on the thickness of your wetsuit/ dry suit and gear you are wearing.

• 2nd Breathing slowly and evenly and not having too much air in your breathing bag. If diving a CCR

What is the best way to maintain proper buoyancy?

Pre-dive preparation. Buoyancy control begins, with the pre-dive preparation. As you pick what to wear for a dive. Double-check to make sure nothing has changed that could affect buoyancy. A new wetsuit is more buoyant than an older one and will need more weight. A new suit has more inherent buoyancy at first because diving, especially deep diving simply bursts its bubbles. New gear; compare the old version to the new. Gear is always being updated with new buckles or martial so when you switch from old to new make sure you know what the buoyancy is of the new stuff. So when you go to the new magazine pouch make sure you know how it is in the water. Check the weights on a scale; often there is variation between claimed and actual weight. If diving open circuit, are you using a new cylinder? Some cylinders are negatively buoyant when full and simply less negative when empty; others sink first and float later.

Do a buoyancy check. Here is the best way to do a proper buoyancy check. With your lungs half-full, you should float at eye level with no air in your BC. If you are diving open circuit, remember the average cylinder loses about 5 pounds as it empties. So you might have to add about 5 pounds to your weight if you have done your buoyancy check with a full one.

Keep a log

Keeping a log of what gear you have wore, what the temperature was and the type of water (salt/fresh /brackish). What equipment you used, how much lead you carried, how much your body weighs and whether you seemed too heavy or light.  Knowing the weight of the gear that you used on the dive will help. Make sure you understand that if you are going to remove something during the dive you need to account for that on the return trip home. If you plan ahead by recording in training what you used it will help when you have to do it the next time.

Saltwater VS Freshwater.

If most of your diving is done in the ocean, then ballast calculations should be done in the ocean. Jumping in the pool to check your balance will get you close, but it won’t be 100% correct. If you switch back and forth, you’ll need to adjust your ballast. Be prepared to add anywhere from 4 to 7 pounds going from fresh to saltwater.

Buoyancy, Trim, Position, and Breathing

The secret is buoyancy control, begins with fine-tuning your weighting. How much lead you put into your pouches or have on your weight belt. If you are carrying just the right amount of weight, you will only have to put a little air in your BC. That means less drag and more efficient finning. Less BC inflation also means less buoyancy shift with depth, so you’ll have to make fewer adjustments. There are many tricks, but buoyancy control is the fundamental skill. Precise control of your buoyancy is what enables you to hover motionless and fin through the water, at any depth, without using your hands at all or stirring up mud or silt from the bottom. In addition to using the right amount of weight, make sure you are correctly balanced to optimize your position under water. Keeping a more horizontal position makes you more hydrodynamic. Distribute the weight as uniformly as possible from side to side; you should never notice that you put on more weight on one side while diving. You must also consider the weight of your dive gear and any other additional gear you might be wearing. I.E gun belt or special gear. Make sure it is balanced on your body and it doesn’t shift when you are diving. The lowering you wear your dive rig can cause a tendency to push the diver forward (upside down) in the water, so the placement of weight towards the back can help reverse this position, especially on the surface. While carrying weight in the pockets on the back of the vest or taped to you rebreather can help with the adjustment. Lastly, any dive weight you put on should be easy to remove in an emergency.

The factors that affect your buoyancy besides ballast weight are BC inflation, your trim, exposure suit, depth and breathing control. Your ballast weight and your trim are the only two factors that, once you’ve selected them, stay put. Ballast is the amount of weight it takes to keep you neutral in the water. Trim is about the position of your body weight relative to the position of your weight. Sometime when diving a rebreather you can tape lead washers on it to help with your trip.

There is one more thing to understand that will help with your buoyancy. It is controlling your breathing. Make sure you maintain proper breathing. Take long, relaxed breaths this will allow you to maintain control over your buoyancy.

To determine the amount of weight you need, you take your body weight, the diving suit you are going to use, the weight of your equipment and the environment you are diving in salt or fresh water. You can use about 10 percent of your body weight,  is a good starting point for a full  5 mm or more and for a 3 mm suit, use 5 percent of your body weight.

Dry suits and thick neoprene suits require more ballast to counteract the increased buoyancy of those suits in comparison with the thinnest. Body composition (the muscular density, for example) will also influence the necessary weight.

Remember to calculate for everything you are going to do and wear on your dive. If you are doing a long dive and plan to leave or remove something half way thru your dive. Say doing a ship attack, and you are taking limpets off. Plan for the whole dive. To check your buoyancy get into water deep enough to stay in an upright position, without treading and releasing all air from the vest. Inhale, in a normally, the surface of the water must be at the level of your eyes. When you exhale, you should sink until water covers your head and inhale again, you should emerge once again until the level of the eyes. Adjust your weight in small increments about 1 pound at a time.

Once you get your ballast weight and trim dialed in, you will be ahead of about 75% of all divers toward perfect buoyancy control. Now you can fine-tune your BC inflation to compensate for the very predictable changes due to breathing down your tank and changing depth and use only breath control to drop gently down to that cleaner shrimp, hover inches above it as long as you want and lift away from it harmlessly.

Lastly, there are advanced classes that you can take that focus on advanced skills like this. This may seem like a lot of work, but it will help make diving a lot better and make you more efficient at it.


Sunday, October 14th, 2018

A regulator system is required to reduce the pressure of the compressed air contained in the cylinder to ambient pressure to supply breathable air when needed. It is also possible to connect pressure gauges (analog or digital), IP inflators to provide buoyancy compensators, dry suits and other devices to this system. The regulator system is composed of a pressure reduction device and one or more breathing devices. In this article, the pressure-reducing device and the breathing device will be indicated, respectively, by the terms “first stage” and “second stage.”

First Stage

Regulators can use either a piston assembly or a diaphragm assembly. The piston or diaphragm controls and reduces the air pressure from high pressure to moderate pressure in the first stage. Either design may be equally good and equally sensitive to the diver’s inhalation needs except under conditions where high flow is required: there the piston regulator delivers much more air than the diaphragm regulator. The first stage uses a standard piston, balanced piston or diaphragm mechanism. Air is compressed and stored in the tank under high pressure. To reduce this pressure, the first stage is a valve or piston that lowers the pressure to about 140psi to let air into the hose. The valve opens to allow some air into the hose and then closes again. A regulator compensates the pressure as it decreases in the tank when the air is used and as the diver changes depth which causes change the ambient water pressure.

Standard Piston

Standard piston first stages are the simplest mechanism with minimum moving parts to control the pressure drop from a tank to feed the second stage. Which translates to high reliability and durability, combined with minimal maintenance requirements.

Balanced Piston

First stages with air balanced pistons deliver significantly more air to the second stage than any other first stage, while their performance is unaffected by the changing tank pressure. A balanced system allows the use of lighter and more sensitive components, resulting in ultra fast breathing response, instant delivery of air on demand and extra high airflow.

Balanced diaphragm

The inner mechanism in a diaphragm first stage is isolated from the surrounding water. This feature makes it especially suitable for diving in cold-water conditions or murky water. In this system, the air flows through a seat & pin assembly, controlled by a loaded diaphragm. The seat receives equal inter-stage pressure from both sides, making it react independently of tank pressure. Balanced diaphragm systems deliver a slightly lower flow than piston regulators, due to the smaller diameter air passageways. However, these differences in performance are only detectable at great depth. Cold-water divers typically prefer diaphragm regulators because they are less likely to free flow in cold water than are piston regulators.

First Stage Body 

This metal cylinder contains the mechanisms that reduce the high-pressure air in the scuba tank to an intermediate pressure. High-pressure air flows in one side of the first stage body undergo pressure reduction and then flows out through the low-pressure hoses.


The regulator first stage body is held against the scuba tank’s valve through one of two methods: a Yoke or a DIN fitting. This diagram illustrates a yoke fitting, also called an international fitting. The “yoke” is the metal oval that fits over the tank valve to hold the regulator in place. Two types of coupling fittings are used to attach a regulator’s 1st stage to the tank: DIN and Yoke.

Yoke couplings are more commonly found worldwide and are generally always used by the ever-popular aluminum 80 tanks.

DIN fittings are safer than yoke fittings and are the only fittings that can couple with high-pressure tanks. The advantage of DIN fittings is that they screw into the tank valve and trap the high-pressure o-ring so it cannot protrude, this can occasionally happen on a Yoke.

Yoke Screw

The regulator’s yoke is equipped with a yoke screw–a metal screw that runs through the regulator yoke and tightens the regulator first stage body onto the tank. To tighten the yoke screw, the diver turns the black, plastic handle attached to the screw.

Dust Cap

Keeps water from entering the regulator first stage body when not connected to the tank. The dust cap is a rubber cap that can be placed over the regulator first stage opening and tightened down using the regulator yoke screw. This seals closed the opening on the first stage.

Port/ Port Plug

Regulator first stage bodies have multiple openings, or ports, that regulator hoses and transmitters can bed screwed into. Most, regulators have more ports than the standard number of hoses, which allows divers to position their hoses in a variety of configurations. These openings are called ports, and the plugs that close the regulator ports when they are not in use are called port plugs.

Second stage

The second stage of a regulator is basically the part that goes in your mouth and delivers air upon demand. It contains a mechanism that reduces the intermediate pressure in the hose coming from the first stage to the surrounding water pressure making it comfortable and easy to breathe. The second stage also contains a piston or diaphragm construction which starts and stops the airflow. The mouthpiece, an exhaust valve, and an emergency purge valve/button are all parts of the second stage. The exhaust valve lets the air escape into the water when you exhale. It is a one-way valve and does not allow water in. When the purge button is pushed, it forces air to flow continuously into the second stage chamber forcing any water out of the mouthpiece through the exhaust valve.

This unit is supplied, with the intermediate pressure coming out of the first stage through the low-pressure hose. It reduces pressure further to balance air with the ambient pressure. The second stage may be balanced or unbalanced and equipped with a Venturi effect control (V.I.V.A.) and/or with an inhalation resistance control.

Second Stages 

There are two main types of the Second stage, Air Balanced, and Downstream


Air-balanced valve technology provides the optimum breathing comfort preferred by demanding divers. The air-balanced valve technology of SCUBAPRO’s second stages fine-tunes the pressure of the air delivered by the first stage to decrease inhalation resistance to the lowest possible level. The result is an ultra-high airflow that remains exceptionally stable under all breathing conditions.


The classic downstream valve is the best solution for resorts and rental facilities worldwide, as well as many recreational divers. These second stages are particularly noted for their legendary safety and reliability. A specific inhalation effort is always required to overcome the spring tension and opens the valve that lets the air flow in.

Parts of the Regulator

1. Purge Button
The purge button is located on the face of the regulator second stage. The purpose of the purge button is to flood the second stage with air, forcing water out of the second stage. Divers use the purge button when the second stage has been allowed to fill with water–for example, when a diver removes the regulator from his mouth during the regulator recovery skill.

2. Ease of Breathing Adjustment
Most regulators has a lever or knob that allows divers to adjust breathing resistance. This feature helps to prevent regulator free flow (a state when air flows rapidly out of the regulator second stage without the diver breathing from it), which typically occurs when the breathing resistance has been lowered too much. A free flow can quickly empty a tank.

Many second stage adjustments have a setting labeled “pre-dive” to help prevent free flow at the surface, and one labeled “dive” for easy breathing once underwater. As a diver descends, he can adjust the ease of breathing to compensate for the increased difficulty of breathing as he descends.

3. Exhaust Valve
The second stage exhaust valve is the plastic unit that channels exhaled air bubbles away from a diver’s face. The exhaust valve is usually located below the regulator’s mouthpiece to channel air down and to the sides. Helping to keep a diver’s field of vision clear of bubbles.

4. Mouthpiece
The Mouthpiece is the part of the regulator that a diver bites down on. High-quality mouthpieces are made of silicon or soft rubber and comes in a variety of shapes and sizes to fit divers’ mouths. Mouthpieces are removable and replaceable. A diver should check to make sure that his mouthpiece is secured to the regulator second stage with a SCUBAPRO Quick release mouthpiece clamp. Try not to use zip-ties. They are not designed for long-term water exposure. The SP Quick clips are designed for long-lasting UV and saltwater exposure.


The Octopus /alternate second stage, does the same thing as a primary second stage. The Octopus second stage is not intended to be used, except in the case of an out-of-air emergency. A diver with an alternate second stage can allow a diver that is having an out-of-air emergence to breathe from their tank without putting themselves at risk.

1. Mouthpiece
The mouthpiece is the part of the regulator second stage that a diver bites down on. Alternate second stage mouthpieces should be a standard size to fit any diver’s mouth–not a custom mouthpiece. The idea is that any diver should be able to use the mouthpiece in an emergency.

2. Low-Pressure Hose
Low-pressure hoses (LP hoses) transport air from a regulator first stage to its second stages. An alternate second stage’s LP hose is usually longer than the LP hose attached to the primary second stage. This extra length makes it easy for an out-of-air to use an alternate second stage connected to a tank he is not wearing. The LP Hose attached to an alternative second stage is frequently a bright color, such as yellow, to make it easy to see.

3. Purge Button
The purge button on the alternate second stage, has the same function as a purge button on the primary second stage–to remove water that has entered the second stage. Alternate second stage purge buttons are usually brightly colored–this one is neon yellow. The bright color makes it easy for an out-of-air diver to locate the alternative second stage in an emergency.

4. Ease of Breathing Adjustment
Just like the ease of breathing adjustment on a primary second stage, the ease of breathing adjustment on an alternate second stage can be used to increase or decrease breathing resistance during a dive. If ease of breathing adjustment is present, a diver should adjust it so that the breathing resistance of the alternate second stage is increased. The diver should also turn any pre-dive/ dive adjustment to “pre-dive.” The regulator will still work if needed, but this adjustment will ensure that the alternate will not free-flow during the dive.

5. Diver adjustable inhalation resistance control

Second stages equipped with this system have an over-sized external control knob acting directly on the spring tension, allowing the diver to adjust the inhalation resistance to adapt it to the needs of the dive conditions. Adjusting the control knob (clockwise rotation) causes an increase in inhalation resistance. Adjusting with a counterclockwise rotation reduces the spring tension for lower inhalation effort. All depends on the diving conditions, such as in strong currents, when the diver spends some time with his head down and when the second stage is used as an alternate air source (octopus).


The Air 2 is a second stage regulator and a balanced inflator for your BCD in a single, compact housing. SCUBAPRO introduces the inflator concept to diving almost 30 years ago with the introduction of the AIR2 ( Alternate Inflation Reg). The Air 2’s air-balanced power inflator valve gives a steady stream of air, regardless of the pressure in your tank. The Air 2 has a fixed Venturi Initiated Vacuum Assist (VIVA) Flow Vane for safe and uncomplicated use now has a dive/pre-dive switch. This switch allows the regulator mechanism to be set more like that of a standard second stage regulator. It is CE-certified for waters 50°F (10°C) or warmer.

Post dive

Close the cylinder valve and drain the system by pushing on the purge button of each second stage. Once the system has been depressurized disconnect the first stage regulator from the valve. All inlets must be closed with the provided protective caps to avoid the entry of debris, dirt or moisture. If the cylinder valve is equipped with a reserve system, the rod should be put in the “open” position (fully lowered) to indicate that the cylinder needs to be filled.

Care And Maintenance

Regulators are precision devices that are essential to the diver’s safety. After every dive and especially if in chlorinated water (pools), rinse the regulator with fresh water, preventing water from entering the system by following these steps:

1.    Ensure that the high-pressure inlet of the first stage regulator is closed with the special protective cap.

2.    Should water accidentally enter the low-pressure hose, connect the regulator to the cylinder, open the valve and press the second stage purge button down until all water has been expelled.

3.    Dry your regulator entirely in a dry ventilated place, away from heat and direct sunlight. So not in your garage.

4.    Store in a cool, dry place.

This is from our older site but it is still good.

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Choosing a Dry Suit

Sunday, October 7th, 2018

Diving with a drysuit is a whole new dive experience compared to diving in a wetsuit. It is a different feeling being submerged in water, your body remaining dry. Drysuits offer many advantages, such as: exposure protection from the sun, as well as elements in the water, and drysuits can also be utilized as a redundant buoyancy device for added safety. If you’ve never attempted drysuit diving before, then this will be a great introduction to helping you choose your first suit. If you’re an avid diver, then there should be some nuggets in here to help improve your drysuit game.

Finding the Best Drysuit for You

Making the change from wetsuits to drysuits is a big step. Many people convert due to their regular diving in cold water (or being cold natured), or because they perform lots of dives with long exposure times. Determining the suit that is best for you is the first step to ensuring that your transition to drysuit diving is a smooth one. Choosing a bad suit can ruin the entire sport of drysuit diving.

When choosing a drysuit, you should consider the following:

• The type of diving you do

• What amount of thermal protection you need

• Personal preference

• Cost

• Material

While the first four are pretty self-explanatory, the last one – material – may need a little more explanation. If you are going to be traveling with your drysuit, a trilaminate version may be the easiest because they are lighter and easily transportable. If you are looking for a suit that provides thermal protection and is more form-fitting, then you might prefer a neoprene suit. These are two of the top materials that drysuits are made of and that SCUBAPRO offers.

Neoprene Drysuits

Neoprene suits are beneficial in that they provide thermal protection, whereas with others, you wear additional undergarments. The neoprene suits are more form fitted, which require less air to be used in the suit and offer the diver a more streamlined suit. Neoprene suits are economical in the sense that they are typically less expensive, and eliminate the need to buy undergarments as well.

SCUBAPRO offers two neoprene drysuits, the Exodry and the Everdry 4. Both come in men’s and women’s sizing.

The Exodry offers a unique approach to drysuit design by fusing 4mm high-density neoprene with latex wrist and neck seals. This hybrid design is extremely effective, delivering minimal inherent buoyancy, maximum range of motion and an excellent sealing system. The Exodry is a smart choice for all types of diving and can be used with or without an under-suit.

The Everdry 4 offers the streamlined fit, comfort, and flexibility of a wetsuit, with the thermal properties and water-tightness of a drysuit. Equipped with smooth-skin, fold-under neoprene neck seal, and ultra-smooth wrist seals, the Everdry provides comfortable, watering tight sealing surfaces. Known for its comfort and extended wear, the Everdry 4 fits like a glove, offers an excellent range of motion, and most importantly, keeps body heat in and cold water out.

Trilaminate Drysuit

Trilaminate suits are some of the most lightweight suits on the market. Trilaminate suits are also one of the strongest suits offered. Build with a Trilaminate material; these suits are more resistant to deterioration, are fast drying, and easy to repair. Trilaminate suits are designed to be worn with thermal undergarments. You can wear as many or as few thermal layers as you prefer, making it a good choice for a diver that does both cold and warm water diving. Our choice in Trilaminate suits is the Evertech Dry Breathable Drysuit. It is a premium Trilaminate drysuit designed for avid divers and loaded with features. Built with a breathable fabric blend, this suit is comfortable both above and below the surface. Stitched and waterproof taped seams provide extra protection from the water.

Additionally, a front entry diagonal zipper and Si-Tech ring seal system for wrists and neck allow you to change seals quickly. This suit is both comfortable to wear and easy to maintain. You will also find a telescoping torso, top, crotch strap, and bungee system within the waist to tailor the suit to your body shape.

Accessorizing the Drysuit Diving Experience

When it comes to accessorizing your drysuit, many additions are built into the suit – from the padding to pockets. The small details are essential details to consider when choosing a drysuit. Pockets are handy for storage of equipment, and every SCUBAPRO suit comes with at least one large utility pocket. Each pocket houses a D-ring and water draining grommets. These items might be helpful to store a spare mask, reels, wet notes, or surface marker buoys.

Some additional features you may find on your SCUBAPRO suit are attached boots or socks, removable blue suspenders to hold your suit in place, heavy-duty kneepads, and I-safe straps to secure your wrist computers. Each suit always comes with an anatomically shaped hood, repair kits, zipper wax and a versatile carry bag that also doubles as a changing mat.

Drysuit Gloves

When diving in cold water, your hands are typically what get cold first, and can potentially end your dive due to the discomfort. This is why dry gloves are a great addition to your drysuit if you commonly perform dives in frigid water. Dry gloves are designed to allow air inside, making a considerable difference in regulating temperature, much like a drysuit. SCUBAPRO offers two types of dry gloves, the Easydry Pro and the Easy Don Dive Glove.

Both gloves are manufactured from high-quality, vulcanized latex, which gives them high elasticity, plus makes the gloves very resistant to punctures and tears. The elastic latex cuff seal ensures that the glove is waterproof, while still providing access for air to enter the glove. The textured surface enables the wearer to maintain a non-slip grip on instruments, valves or regulator. They come with an inner glove for added thermal protection.

Wetsuit Gloves

Whereas many drysuit divers chose to dive with dry gloves, many others prefer neoprene gloves. Neoprene gloves still allow your hands to get wet, while the neoprene foam offers thermal protection. Many divers prefer wet gloves over dry as they vary in thickness and can provide better dexterity. SCUBAPRO carries dive gloves from 1.5mm up to 5mm, for all your diving needs.

What to Wear Under Your Drysuit

One of the beauties of diving in a drysuit is being able to control the amount of thermal protection you want. As previously stated, in a Trilaminate, suit you have the room to layer as much or as little undergarments as desired. With the neoprene suits you are more limited by space; however, the suit itself provides warmth. Our preferred undergarment is the SCUBAPRO Climasphere.

The Climasphere is our undergarment of choice for drysuit diving. This thermal wear keeps you warm with a low profile two-piece insulation system. You can wear one or both pieces under your drysuit, at depth, for total comfort and warmth. The garments are breathable and windproof, making them a perfect surface interval ensemble while on the surface. Designed with neoprene wrist and ankle cuffs, with thumb loops and stirrups, they’ll both enhance warmth and prevent ride-up when climbing into your drysuit. The Climasphere is also one of few undergarments that are washable; however, we recommend you air-dry them not to deteriorate the materials.


Sunday, September 30th, 2018

The HYDROS PRO is a true breakthrough in dive comfort and convenience. The moldable Monprene®, adjustable fit and multi-attachment points combine to make this the most customizable and comfortable BC ever. Winner of the 2016 Red Dot award for product design. Interchangeable straps, a packable design and an included backpack with room for your entire dive kit make the HYDROS PRO perfect for any destination and any dive.

Durable Monprene® construction means ultra durability. The HYDROS PRO also stands up to UV, chemicals, and abrasion — without showing typical signs of wear.  And a modular construction makes repairs — even from remote locations — a snap. It’s a BC for life.

When you are wearing the HYDROS PRO, you won’t even know it’s there. The HYDROS PRO molds to your specific body shape, and has been designed with body grip gel, providing extreme comfort and stability. Near-Zero inherent buoyancy means less lead. And, thanks to a back inflation, smart air system you can dive in any position.

A 2-in-1 BC The HYDROS PRO includes both the Trav-Tek straps and a fully integrated weight system. So, with a quick switch of clips, you can transform the HYDROS PRO from a harness travel BC to an integrated weight BC. Now you only need one BC for both local diving and travel.


Customize and Accessorize – Easily add, remove, or replace weight systems, bungees, D-rings, accessories and pockets to make the HYDROS PRO truly your own. With a wide range of mountable accessories and kits, your options are endless — and can quickly be changed based upon the dive and conditions.

Travel Friendly The HYDROS PRO goes everywhere with you. Instant dry, lightweight and compact, with a unique smart-pack design, the HYDROS PRO also comes with a customized backpack designed to fit your entire dive kit on your back.

The HYDROS PRO comes in seven colors, perfectly matched to SCUBAPRO suits, masks and Seawing Novas. Separate color kits are also available so you can change up your dive style whenever you want.

Specialized Fit for Women-Smaller air bladder. Shorter inflator hose. Curved shoulder straps that fit perfectly. Experience the difference of diving with a more thoughtfully designed BC for women.

Perfect For

• Instructors

• Tech Divers

• Travel Divers

• Female Divers

• Young Divers

• New Divers

• Dive Training

Ultra Durable: Patented Injection Molded Monprene® Gel Harness is extremely resistant to UV, chemicals and abrasion. The fabric-free harness uses no velcro or zippers.

Instant Dry: Ideal for travel due to less water retention and lower post-dive weight.

“BC-4-Life” Modular Design: Customizable to add/remove weight systems, straps and pouches. Extended lifespan due to simplified repairs. Virtually every component, including buckles, can be replaced without stitching.

3D Ergonomic Design: Conforms to your body shape for maximum comfort.

Lightweight: Advanced materials keep weight low.

Neutrally Buoyant: Near-Zero inherent buoyancy requires less lead, resulting in better buoyancy control and much more enjoyable diving.

Body Grip Gel: Prevents BC from shifting and riding up.

Dual-Compound Backplate: Provides the ultimate in stability and comfort. Single tank band system allows for easier assembly.

Torso Flex Zone: Auto-adjusts to your torso length for excellent comfort and freedom of movement.

Articulated Shoulder Straps: Allow straps to adjust to your body shape to achieve a snug fit.

Kit-Up Assist: Holds shoulder straps open for easy donning.

Cross-Flow Channel: Unrestricted internal airflow reduces air trapping for enhanced maneuverability and easy deflation at any angle.

2-Stage Inflation: Tri-bungee system controls air distribution to maintain a compact shape under water and high lift capacity at the surface.

Dorsal Weight-Wing: Anti-abrasion and instant dry. Optimal “Outboard” trim pockets.

Buckle Weight System: Simple, safe and reliable quick-release buckles offer a fixed location for easy one-hand operation.

Multi-Mount Accessory Matrix: Multiple D-Rings and mounting points for a knife + light + SMB + hoses + crotch strap and much more.

Smart-Pack Design: Folding shoulder and waist straps pack into the wing, creating an unbelievably compact package for easy transport and storage.

Available with Balanced Power Inflator or AIR2 alternate air source.

SCUBAPRO Sunday – Snorkels

Sunday, September 23rd, 2018

As far back as 3000 B.C.E, (5000 years) people were going after natural sponges off the coast of Crete and breathing through the world’s first snorkel tube that they made from hollow reeds. Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, recalled instances of divers breathing through a device similar to the trunk of an elephant.

In later years, the Assyrians developed an alternative snorkel device. They filled animal skins with air to breathe from when they were under water. Aristotle wrote about divers who used a tube that led from the surface to the divers below.  The consummate Renaissance Man, Leonardo Da Vinci had many designs that he called diving or underwater apparatuses. He designed a self-contained dive suit and even sketched diving gloves with webbed fingers. Technically, they could be considered the fist fins.

The development of the diving bell which contained air bubbles for divers to inhale while underwater was overseen by Alexander the Great.

• 900 B.C.E- Assyrian divers used animal skins filled with air in order to lengthen the time they could spend below the surface of the water.

• 333 B.C.E Alexander the Great encourages divers to develop and use the first diving bell — a large bell-shaped object that trapped air in the top of the bell (and a person) to submerge and maintain the ability to breathe.

• 1538- Greeks in Spain (Toledo) submerge themselves in large diving bell-like contraption to the bottom of the Tagus River only to emerge later with dry clothes and a still burning candle.

The same concept allows modern-day snorkelers to breathe air from the surface with their face submerged. Modern rubber and plastics make equipment durable and comfortable while offering maximum safety. With the advances in rubber and plastic composite materials, snorkels have significantly improved their function and use. The most popular snorkels is the J-shaped plastic tubes connected by a flexible strap or clip assembly to the diver’s mask.

Snorkels for diving

The snorkel makes it possible to breathe safely on the surface without using the air in your tanks. When choosing a snorkel, think first what you want to use it for and how you will use it the most. The diameter is important because it minimizes your effort while using it. Most snorkels are brightly colored so dive boats can easily spot them and more importantly you.

Free-diving Snorkels

Free-diving snorkels are often the simplest models. They are made without a complex purging system and without valves to limit breathing noise, those snorkels are also shorter to easily expel water from the tube and are easily tuck away. They usually have a slightly larger diameter to properly ventilate between two dive immersions. They are one of the best for Combat swimmer to use, as they are small and can be packed away easily and mostly come in dark colors.

Types of Snorkels

There are four common types of snorkels and each has their advantages and disadvantages.


The classic snorkel, also called a J-style snorkel, is a plastic tube with a mouthpiece attached. This snorkel is usually slightly bent, but it can also be made to fit a more specific shape. The SCUBAPRO Apnea snorkel can be rolled up and easily stored in a pocket or attached to the sides or bottom of a Rebreather. This is the one best suited for combat swimmer operations.

Flexible Snorkel

The flexible snorkel has a purge valve. This snorkel has a flexible portion and a rigid portion, as well as a one-way valve located at the bottom that makes it easier to expel any water that may get into the snorkel. The added flexibility allows divers to fit the snorkel better around their masks and faces. The purge valve at the bottom of the mouthpiece helps ensure uninterrupted breathing as it flushes water out every time you exhale.


The semi-dry snorkel is a mix of a classic and dry snorkel. The top features a splashguard, and sometimes even a flexible tube and a purge valve. The splashguard at the top helps to prevent splashes or sprays of water from easily entering the tube. It doesn’t prevent all the water from entering, especially if you fully submerge yourself underwater or if water covers the top like in a high wave.


The dry snorkel has a valve at the top of the snorkel. The valve blocks water and air when the snorkel is submerged—and a purge valve at the bottom. They are great for snorkeling on the surface and occasionally dive without having to worry about constantly clearing water out of the tube. When used for diving, the advantage is that divers don’t have to clear them of water when they reach the surface.

As with semi-dry snorkels, the one-way purge valve at the bottom allows the user to easily flush water out with a few quick exhalations. While the dry snorkel is more convenient and efficient to use, it can also has its drawbacks. The valve at the top of the snorkel can sometimes become blocked. The dry snorkel may also be more buoyant underwater.