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Archive for the ‘Disruptive Tech’ Category

New Algorithm Could Mean More Efficient, Accurate Equipment For Army

Sunday, December 22nd, 2019

RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. (Dec. 19, 2019) –  Researchers working on an Army-funded project have developed an algorithm to simulate how electromagnetic waves interact with materials in devices to create equipment more efficiently and accurately. The algorithm could be used in a wide range of fields – from biology and astronomy to military applications and telecommunications.

 

Electromagnetic waves exist as radiation of energies from charges and other quantum processes. They include radio waves, microwaves, light and X-rays. Mobile phones communicate by transmitting radio waves.

 

It takes a tremendous amount of computer simulations to create a device like an MRI scanner that images the brain by detecting electromagnetic waves propagating through tissue. Those simulations can take days or months to identify how the electromagnetic waves will react when they encounter the materials in the device. Because of the cost, there is a limit to the number of simulations typically done for these devices.

 

With funding from the Army Research Office, in a study, published in the SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, SMU (Southern Methodist University) researchers revealed a faster algorithm for these simulations. It is a more efficient and less expensive way to predict the behavior of waves.

 

“We can reduce the simulation time from one month, to maybe one hour,” said lead researcher Wei Cai, SMU Clements Chair of applied mathematics. “We have made a breakthrough in these algorithms.”

 

“Electromagnetic waves are central to many important applications in sensing, power, and communication. Being able to conduct related simulations faster and less expensively will have many military applications,” said Dr. Joseph Myers, Army Research Office Mathematical Sciences Division chief. ARL is an element of the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command’s Army Research Laboratory. “For example, this work will help create a virtual laboratory for scientists to simulate and explore quantum dot solar cells, which could produce extremely small, efficient and lightweight solar military equipment.”

 

The new algorithm modifies a mathematical method called the fast multipole method, or FMM, which was considered one of the top 10 algorithms in the 20th century.

 

Using this new algorithm, the computer simulations map out how materials in a device like semiconductor materials will interact with light, in turn giving a sense of what a particular wave will do when it comes in contact with that device.

 

An engineer or mathematician would be able to use this new algorithm to test a device whose job is to pick out a certain electromagnetic wave. For instance, it could be used to test designs for a solar light battery that lasts longer and is smaller than currently exists.

 

“To design a battery that is small in size, you need to optimize the material so that you can get the maximum conversion rate from the light energy to electricity,” Cai said. “An engineer could find that maximum conversion rate by going through simulations faster with this algorithm.”

 

The algorithm could also help an engineer design a seismic monitor to predict earthquakes by tracking elastic waves in the earth, Cai noted.

 

“These are all waves, and our method applies for different kinds of waves,” he said. “There are a wide range of applications with what we have developed.”

 

The computational system used for this project, the SMU MANEFRAME II, is descended from the Army high-performance computing system “Mana,” formerly located at the Maui HPC Center in Hawaii, and donated and physically moved to SMU through the efforts of ARO and SMU.

By US Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs

US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine at Natick Seeks Volunteers for Marksmanship Learning Study

Wednesday, December 11th, 2019

The US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in Natick, MA is seeking volunteers for a research study investigating the effectiveness of a non-invasive tool that uses mild electrical stimulation of the face to improve learning. The purpose of this study is to determine whether this tool could reduce the amount of time Warfighters need to acquire marksmanship proficiency. If you qualify for participation, you will be asked to answer questions about yourself and your health, complete marksmanship tasks involving a simulated M4 rifle and have your heart rate monitored. Your participation in this study will last approximately 13 hours, which will be spread across 4 days.

To be included in this study, you must be 18 to 30 years of age, exercise at least twice a week, and speak/read English fluently. You cannot have prior military/law enforcement service, and minimal or no prior experience with firearms, including pistols, shotguns, or rifles.

You may receive up to $300 for completing this study if you do not work for the government. Reimbursement may be available for transportation services.

To find out more information please call (508) 206-2432 or email [email protected]

Advanced Manufacturing Techniques Set To Cut Costs, Timelines For US Army

Sunday, December 8th, 2019

ARLINGTON, Va. — The Army’s advanced manufacturing push intends to cut production timelines and costs throughout the lifecycle of systems, said an Army acquisition officer.

“Can you imagine how great it would be if we could just not have any parts in the logistics system, only raw materials, and we would just print the part at the point of need, right?” asked Maj. Gen. David Bassett, program executive officer for Command, Control, and Communications – Tactical, or C3T, during a panel discussion Wednesday.

That vision has become synonymous with advanced manufacturing, he said during the Association of the U.S. Army’s “Hot Topic” forum on Acquisition and Contracting.

Advanced manufacturing forges innovative technologies to “create new, or improved products or processes,” said Paul Mehney, C3T public communications director.

One technique, additive manufacturing, incorporates 3D printing, robotics, artificial intelligence and composite materials. But according to Bassett, that’s just a fraction of what the new push entails.

Over the last several months, C3T project managers have partnered up with the members of the Army’s Command, Control, Computers, Communications, Cyber, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center — known as the C5ISR — at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland and applied 3D printing techniques for network integration efforts.

At the proving ground, they have been prototyping radio, gateway and server racks, and mounting brackets on lightweight military vehicles to support network enhancement efforts of the Integrated Visual Augmentation System.

“The use of 3D printing enables developers to experiment with form/fit/function of different mounting systems and also allows developers and integrators to quickly incorporate Soldier feedback,” Mehney said.

To enable network connectivity for the Integrated Visual Augmentation System, developers are prototyping an integrated network enhancement kit called the Bloodhound, Mehney said.

Bloodhound is a network communications gateway and data management kit currently integrated onto light vehicles — but it is platform agnostic, he said, meaning it runs equally well on more than one platform.

During recent IVAS Soldier Touchpoint experimentation, infantry Soldiers and Marines provided feedback on the location of network systems on the Bloodhound, and made suggestions to improve form and fit of integrated network components.

“Future IVAS network capabilities may include data synchronization over narrow band SATCOM [Satellite Communications] with up to 75% reduction in component payload size, which will allow for network kit integration into combat and tactical vehicle platforms,” Mehney said.

IVAS network capability integration on the Stryker and Bradley platforms are both already in motion.

“3D manufacturing techniques will allow additional prototypes to be made as more Soldier feedback in development and operations is received, and as additional vehicle platforms are identified for network kit integration,” Mehney said.

Last month, the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Soldier Center, in partnership with the University of Maine, procured the world’s largest 3D printer, to further bolster collaboration with industry leaders.

The printer will enable the rapid creation of large products for the Soldier, said Professor Habib Joseph Dagher, Advanced Structures and Composites Center executive director at the college.

Once a design configuration is locked, design plans developed out of advanced manufacturing techniques will be handed to industry for production.

Although the Army fostering of advanced manufacturing methods and materials are in its early stages, the service’s industrial base “must rapidly innovate to keep pace with industry and adversaries exploiting” their own advanced methods and materials, according to an Army statement.

But digital engineering is only the start, Bassett said. “Techniques [with advanced manufacturing] are now available to us that should aid in efficiency, and allow us to build things we never could have envisioned.”

In other words, 3D printing is only a part of advanced manufacturing and it “looks across the entire lifecycle of the system, starting with design, manufacturing and sustainment,” Bassett said.

“If you start to build a system this way,” he said, “when you get to sustainment, you should be able to identify what parts you can manufacture in different ways.”

The Army’s new manufacturing policy is made up of three elements: strategic investment, systematic adoption, and deliberate and thoughtful use, said Brian Raftery, acting deputy assistant secretary of the Army for strategy and acquisition.

Strategic investment must “develop a holistic, threat-based strategy for the investment in and use of advanced methods and materials” and open the door for outside partnership with industry leaders, he added.

The second principle integrates advanced manufacturing technology upfront, and throughout the system’s lifecycle, Raftery said.

And lastly, advanced manufacturing will be deliberate and used thoughtfully, he said. This means it will keep in mind aspects of things like return on investment and intellectual property implications.

Story by Thomas Brading

First photo by SSG Armando R. Limon

Robotics Update: ASI Receives SBIR Funding for Deep Learning Architecture to Support Multiple Sensors in GPS-denied Environments

Tuesday, November 5th, 2019

Mendon, Utah – Autonomous Solutions, Inc. (ASI) has been awarded a SBIR Phase I grant from the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Ground Vehicles Systems Center (formerly TARDEC) to develop a Deep Learning (DL) architecture that will support sensor fusion in environments with limited, or no, GPS.

“Environmental sensing today typically includes cameras, LiDAR and radar,” said Jeff Ferrin, CTO of ASI. “Each of these devices has a specific purpose, but not all of them work well in every situation. For example, cameras are great at collecting high-resolution color information, but do not provide much useful information in the dark.”  

 

In addition to the challenges faced by cameras in poorly lit or degraded visual environments, LiDAR and radar sensors also have limitations. LiDAR performs well in most light conditions but may yield false positives in heavy rain, fog, snow or dust, due to its use of light spectrum wavelengths. Radar usually penetrates these degraded visual environments, but often lacks spatial resolution.

 

“ASI’s goal is to design a deep learning architecture that fuses information from LiDAR, radar and cameras,” said Ferrin. “We plan to build upon machine learning techniques we have already developed for LiDAR data.”

 

Deep learning is a branch of artificial intelligence and machine learning that allows valuable information to be extracted from large volumes of data. Cameras are often used in deep learning models because of their high output of information in regularly sampled data structures.

 

The case is different for LiDAR and radar. Naturally, these two sensor types do not provide regularly sampled data, making it difficult to formulate problems using current deep learning frameworks. This gap in current research efforts – deep learning for LiDAR and radar – is the focus of this grant.

 

Improved utilization of data from multiple devices can paint a more accurate picture of a vehicle’s surroundings, keeping it safer and making it more efficient. The details of the grant solicitation state, “It is anticipated that harnessing a wide variety of sensors altogether will benefit the autonomous vehicles by providing a more general and robust self-driving system, especially for navigating in different types of challenging weather, environments, road conditions and traffic.”

 

“In the last few years, we have seen a growing need in the world of robotics to advance industry capabilities in machine learning, deep learning, and other artificial intelligence algorithms to improve performance in these challenging environments,” said Ferrin.

 

Details of the Phase I grant awarded to ASI include developing a deep learning architecture that will support sensors that are not vision-based, such as radar and LiDAR, along with supporting sensor fusion. ASI is required to demonstrate the feasibility of the deep learning architecture in a simulation environment, including a road following system that controls an autonomous vehicle, on a course with obstacles and a degraded visual environment.

www.asirobots.com

R2TD: A new tool for an ever-present threat

Sunday, November 3rd, 2019

ABERDEEN PROVING GROUNDS, Md. — Seismic, acoustic and electromagnetic systems work to help Army find one of the oldest forms of field fortification: tunnels.

War is as old as human history. This means a lot of the reactive tactics and protective equipment must evolve in response to an attack becoming strong. As weapons became heavier and deadlier-swords went from bronze, to iron, to alloys of greater hardness and durability-the defense for them would evolve, protective clothing going from very thick fabrics, to leathers, to metals to the hard ceramics and Kevlar we know today.

Terrain use has evolved over time, too. As the stakes continue to rise and objectives evolve, merely taking hills, fields and transportation routes was always the start, but taking, holding and occupying towns and cities for longer periods of time will be key.

This means tunnels. Cities thousands of years old, such as Paris and its 200 miles of tunnels and catacombs, or modern American cities like New York, which has 665 miles of subway tunnels, will make tunnels a consideration of modern urban warfare. Newer cities may not have subways as an afterthought, but as a foundation of their planning. In India and China, for example, subway stations are the root of creating new cities as the population continues to grow.

Tunnels have been used to thwart invaders and penetrate fortifications since there were invaders and fortifications. For example, ancient Romans used tunnels-called qanats-to transport water to sustain their cities. Were any enemy able to find those tunnels, they could do incredible damage to the city of Rome.

Today, military thinkers like those at the Modern War Institute at West Point are considering underground warfare as a given, and they are considering the kind of equipment that would make underground warfighting most effective.

Project Manager Terrestrial Sensors, part of the Program Executive Office – Intelligence, Electronic Warfare & Sensors, has a key piece of tunnel warfare at the ready: Rapid Reaction Tunnel Detection equipment, or R2TD.

After all, to fight in tunnels, you have to find them first.

Dr. Steven Sloan, a research geophysicist with the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, has been working with his team on R2TD system for more than half a decade, which is less a piece of equipment than a suite of tools.

“What we’ve found over the years is that there’s no silver bullet that works in all geologies and all situations,” said Sloan. “So, we have multiple, different systems that each have their strengths in different things dependent on the setting that we’re working in, or what the target set is, then we can kind of mix and match to optimize detection.”

R2TD has seismic, acoustic and electromagnetic systems to detect different aspects of underground structures. Seismic to detect movement of dirt, for example. Acoustic to detect open space underneath the ground and electromagnetic to detect infrastructure like cables, wires, nails and even rails.

“The other two systems are actual in-ground permanently or semi-permanently installed, like an underground fence of sensors,” said Sloan. These other two systems are the border tunneling activity detection system-linear and the active seismic imaging system, which can counter adversaries using purpose-built tunnels or existing subsurface infrastructure, and assist in the survey of large areas for perimeter defense and the detection of existing tunnels and other subsurface anomalies, respectively.

“The thing with tunnels is they’re a low-tech counter to a high-tech adversary,” said Sloan. “So all it takes is his time and manpower to build one and there’s not a whole lot out there to stop them. It’s been around centuries and centuries for a lot of different conflicts.”

Sloan and his team know this, and thus they are often upgrading and tweaking the system.

“We’re upgrading the active seismic units that are in theater,” said Sloan. “We bring them back one at a time and we put in new hardware and new software that’s been developed over the last four or five years in there and then put them back over into their respective theaters of operations.”

“If someone was trying the tunnel under a facility to place explosives or something like that, you don’t want to be on the back end of that trying to figure out how it happened after it’s happened,” said Sloan. “It’s more of a preventative measure, or proactive rather than reactive. You won’t use this over every square inch of every facility that you would build. However, if you got some particularly vulnerable facilities in an area or something, some kind of secured facility that you really want to monitor, it’s another tool that you can use.”

By John Higgins, PEO IEW&S

Germany-Based US Army Field New Positioning System

Wednesday, October 30th, 2019

ROSE BARRACKS, VILSECK, Germany — Members of Project Manager Positioning Navigation and Timing (PM PNT) landed in Germany in early September with a mission: outfitting Soldiers’ Stryker vehicles with the latest in Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) equipment. That equipment is the Mounted Assured PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Timing) System (MAPS) Generation 1, (MAPS GEN I), a powerful suite of new hardware and software that will ensure Soldiers have assured position and timing to navigate in a GPS degraded and denied environment. As adversaries across the spectrum field new capabilities to disrupt and degrade GPS, Soldiers will need more fortifications and assurances in those systems.

SOFWERX – Science and Technology Small Business Innovation Research

Wednesday, September 25th, 2019

Like all commands, USSOCOM has unique requirements and it needs industry’s help solving them. The SBIR program is an opportunity for small businesses to conduct federally funded research.

See the list of topics and instructions at www.acq.osd.mil/osbp/sbir/solicitations. For additional details, visit www.sofwerx.org/sbir.

The event will be held at SOFWERX in Tampa, 19 – 20 November. Submit by 23 October 2019.

Shape-shifting Robots Built from ‘Smarticles’ Could Navigate Army Operations

Monday, September 23rd, 2019

RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C. — A U.S. Army project took a new approach to developing robots — researchers built robots entirely from smaller robots known as “smarticles,” unlocking the principles of a potentially new locomotion technique.

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology and Northwestern University published their findings in the journal Science Robotics (see related links below).

The research could lead to robotic systems capable of changing their shapes, modalities and functions, said Sam Stanton, program manager, complex dynamics and systems at the Army Research Office, an element of U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command’s Army Research Laboratory, the Army’s corporate research laboratory.

“For example, as envisioned by the Army Functional Concept for Maneuver, a robotic swarm may someday be capable of moving to a river and then autonomously forming a structure to span the gap,” he said.

The 3D-printed smarticles — short for smart active particles — can do just one thing: flap their two arms. But when five of these smarticles are confined in a circle, they begin to nudge one another, forming a robophysical system known as a “supersmarticle” that can move by itself. Adding a light or sound sensor allows the supersmarticle to move in response to the stimulus — and even be controlled well enough to navigate a maze.

The notion of making robots from smaller robots — and taking advantage of the group capabilities that arise by combining individuals — could provide mechanically based control over very small robots. Ultimately, the emergent behavior of the group could provide a new locomotion and control approach for small robots that could potentially change shapes.

“These are very rudimentary robots whose behavior is dominated by mechanics and the laws of physics,” said Dan Goldman, a Dunn Family Professor in the School of Physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the project’s principal investigator. “We are not looking to put sophisticated control, sensing and computation on them all. As robots become smaller and smaller, we’ll have to use mechanics and physics principles to control them because they won’t have the level of computation and sensing we would need for conventional control.”

The foundation for the research came from an unlikely source: a study of construction staples. By pouring these heavy-duty staples into a container with removable sides, former doctoral student Nick Gravish — now a faculty member at the University of California San Diego — created structures that would stand by themselves after the container’s walls were removed.

Shaking the staple towers eventually caused them to collapse, but the observations led to a realization that simple entangling of mechanical objects could create structures with capabilities well beyond those of the individual components.

“Dan Goldman’s research is identifying physical principles that may prove essential for engineering emergent behavior in future robot collectives as well as new understanding of fundamental tradeoffs in system performance, responsiveness, uncertainty, resiliency and adaptivity,” Stanton said.

The researchers used a 3D printer to create battery-powered smarticles, which have motors, simple sensors and limited computing power. The devices can change their location only when they interact with other devices while enclosed by a ring.

“Even though no individual robot could move on its own, the cloud composed of multiple robots could move as it pushed itself apart and shrink as it pulled itself together,” Goldman said. “If you put a ring around the cloud of little robots, they start kicking each other around and the larger ring — what we call a supersmarticle — moves around randomly.”

The researchers noticed that if one small robot stopped moving, perhaps because its battery died, the group of smarticles would begin moving in the direction of that stalled robot. The researchers learned to control the movement by adding photo sensors to the robots that halt the arm flapping when a strong beam of light hits one of them.

“If you angle the flashlight just right, you can highlight the robot you want to be inactive, and that causes the ring to lurch toward or away from it, even though no robots are programmed to move toward the light,” Goldman said. “That allowed steering of the ensemble in a very rudimentary, stochastic way.”

In future work, Goldman envisions more complex interactions that use the simple sensing and movement capabilities of the smarticles. “People have been interested in making a certain kind of swarm robots that are composed of other robots,” he said. “These structures could be reconfigured on demand to meet specific needs by tweaking their geometry.”

Swarming formations of robotic systems could be used to enhance situational awareness and mission-command capabilities for small Army units in difficult-to-maneuver environments like cities, forests, caves or other rugged terrain.

The research project also received funding from National Science Foundation.

robotics.sciencemag.org/content/4/34/eaax4316

www.army.mil/futures

www.army.mil/ccdc

www.arl.army.mil

Story by U.S. Army CCDC Army Research Laboratory Public Affairs

Photos by Rob Felt of Georgia Tech