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Archive for the ‘COVID-19 Pandemic’ Category

Outdoor Research Achieves NIOSH Approval for US-Made N95 Flat Fold Respirator Mask

Monday, August 3rd, 2020


Outdoor Research, LLC. (OR), a leading brand in the tactical and outdoor apparel industries, and the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) announced this week that the U.S.-made N95 Flat Fold Respirator Mask from Outdoor Research has achieved NIOSH approval. 

Early on in the pandemic, Outdoor Research recognized the need for U.S. manufacturing to help address the national shortage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the medical and defense communities. Because it already had significant onshore manufacturing operations in Seattle and Los Angeles, it was able to quickly adapt to address this shortage. 

Following conversions at its manufacturing facilities, Outdoor Research began producing the 100% American-made, Berry Amendment-compliant Resolute Face Mask and regulated Surgical and N95 respirator masks. It is also producing reusable, technical and functional face masks for the general public featuring integrated filters. All told, Outdoor Research has produced over 2.5 million masks to date.

Approval from NIOSH for the N95 respirator mask is a significant accomplishment. Outdoor Research is one of only 9 organizations to achieve expedited certification. While many companies have entered the mask market temporarily by creating “face coverings” for general public use, Outdoor Research has made a strategic commitment to expanding the company’s manufacturing capabilities to build advanced medical-devices, providing PPE to frontline healthcare workers during and after this current crisis. 

 “This pivot to medical PPE has required extreme dedication by an innovation team that was truly ‘purpose driven’ to help the end user,” said Jason Duncan, Head of Tactical, Innovation and CSR at Outdoor Research. “There was not a deep analysis of the business case but rather an answer to the question: what can our team do RIGHT NOW to help? You can’t motivate people to work this hard for this long without a purpose-driven goal. The NIOSH regulatory approval represents a success for a weary team that has been as obsessed with employee safety as they have with creating medical PPE. “ 

Highly respected in the outdoor industry for developing functional solutions for extreme environments, Outdoor Research has a history of successfully leveraging the best commercial market technologies to serve the needs of the armed services and first responders. Over the past two years the company has conducted a comprehensive review of the U.S. supply chain and is in active development with textile mills and materials providers to expand and elevate the capabilities of products that are 100-percent American-made.

Outdoor Research has made significant capital investments designed to improve and modernize its Seattle factory. These investments allow Outdoor Research to take advantage of the company’s global knowledge of design, materials, and innovative manufacturing techniques while producing the next generation of outdoor and tactical products at its facilities. OR has continued to accelerate its product-development cycle, allowing the latest innovations to be rapidly fielded to the end user, helping increase the mobility and protection of soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines, first responders, outdoor enthusiasts, and now the medical community.  

For more about Outdoor Research, visit

McHenry Introduces Bipartisan American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act – Widens Berry Amendment Across Departments

Thursday, July 30th, 2020

Congressman Patrick McHenry (R-NC-10), joined Congressman Bill Pascrell, Jr. (D-NJ-09) to introduce the American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act. This bipartisan legislation will help end the United States’ reliance on Chinese-made personal protective equipment (PPE) and ensure that hospitals and frontline healthcare workers have access to a plentiful supply of high-quality American made PPE.

“The COVID-19 pandemic has made it painfully clear that the United States has failed its hospitals and frontline healthcare workers because of our over-reliance on Chinese-made PPE,” said Congressman McHenry. “By returning production of PPE to the United States, we will address the concerns raised by the current crisis while also incentivizing future investments in high quality PPE made by American companies, ensuring the long-term protection of our hospitals and frontline healthcare workers. I am glad to partner with Representative Pascrell to introduce a bipartisan bill that does just that.”

“The ongoing pandemic has exposed America’s over-reliance on personal protective equipment made in other countries. In a cruel twist of irony we are especially dependent on medical supplies made in China, where COVID-19 originated and whose totalitarian secrecy deepened the world crisis,” said Congressman Pascrell. “Our reliance on non-American-made PPE has crippled our response to COVID from the start. Even as we continue to fight the virus, we must use this painful lesson to change our behavior now. Our bipartisan American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act will ensure we are investing in the best tools in the world at our disposal by making our own PPE right here in America. Encouraging production of medical supplies within our borders will ultimately help our economy, create jobs, ensure higher-grade equipment, and most important save American lives. This cannot wait until the next pandemic.”

“The U.S. textile industry would like to sincerely thank Congressman McHenry and Congressman Pascrell for introducing the American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act, a bill we believe will create strong domestic procurement rules to incentivize investment and the onshoring of critical medical textiles,” said National Council of Textile Organizations (NCTO) President and CEO Kim Glas. “Re-creating the successful domestic purchasing rules found in the Berry Amendment for all federal PPE purchases will not only help our country reduce its overreliance on China for PPE but also provide longer term support for our domestic supply chain that has supplied hundreds of millions of urgently needed items including face masks, isolation gowns and other needed PPE to frontline health care workers.”

“The American manufacturers who comprise the Warrior Protection and Readiness Coalition (WPRC) applaud the leadership of Congressman McHenry and Congressman Pascrell, demonstrated by their introduction of the American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act,” said David Costello, Executive Director of the Warrior Protection and Readiness Coalition (WPRC). “This thoughtful legislation recognizes that a 100% American PPE supply chain is a matter of our national security and that ending reliance on unreliable, foreign made products is essential to ensure the health and safety of our nation. Our members are already investing their time and energy bolstering their domestic PPE capability and we look forward to working with Mr. McHenry and Mr. Pascrell to see this bill become law. “ 

Background: The American PPE Supply Chain Integrity Act implements the Berry Amendment standard of “100 percent of a product that is grown, reprocessed, reused, or produced in the United States” for the purchas of personal protective equipment (PPE) by Department of Defense, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. It also resets the contract level for the Berry Amendment from $250,000 to $150,000 to ensure more PPE is made in America.

AirBoss Defense Group Awarded Contracts Valued at Over $123 Million to Support the PPE Requirements of the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

Monday, July 27th, 2020

LANDOVER, MD (July 27, 2020) – AirBoss Defense Group (ADG), which is focused on the design, development and manufacturing of American-made, proven, commercially available personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects front-line workers and defense personnel, announced today that it has been awarded more than $123 million in contracts to supply PPE to U.S. Government agencies.

ADG been awarded a $121 million contract by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) – Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), for 50,000 American-made FlexAir™ Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR), 3,000,000 High Efficiency Filters and related accessories, including spare protective hoods, that will be part of the inventory for the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). The FlexAir PAPR is designed to enable medical providers and first responders unencumbered protection over extended periods of time, while providing critical medical care. Deliveries under the contract to HHS are expected to be completed over the next nine months.

ADG further announced that the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has placed a sustainment order of $2.55 million with ADG for 60,000 high efficiency (HE) filters and 20,000 protective hoods to establish a contingency stockpile of equipment for the ongoing fight against COVID-19. This sustainment order supports the continued use by VA medical personnel of the over 10,000 American-made FlexAir PAPR systems that had been delivered to the agency earlier this year. Deliveries to the VA are expected to be completed over six weeks, beginning in mid-August.

Patrick Callahan, CEO of ADG, stated: “These new contracts underscore ADG’s ability to quickly respond to the COVID-19 crisis by focusing the entire company on delivering FlexAir PAPR systems to front-line workers across the United States. These orders to supply the PPE needs of the SNS and the VA will bolster U.S. capabilities to respond to public health hazards and ensure that the United States has a more robust domestic capability to support the federal response to future emergencies.”

“To this end, ADG has increased staffing to support the urgent needs of the U.S. federal government and is manufacturing PAPR systems at facilities in Landover, Maryland; Auburn Hills, Michigan; Scotland Neck, North Carolina; and Charleston, South Carolina,” Mr. Callahan noted.

The FlexAir PAPR system is a compact, lightweight respirator system powered by an onboard battery in a waist-mounted blower, designed and manufactured in the United States.  The flexible design permits the use of two high-efficiency particulate filters that are designed to provide a 99.7% protection level against particulates, aerosols and biohazards, including the COVID-19 virus.

The PAPR order for the SNS follows an earlier Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) order for 100,000 PAPR systems that was placed to respond to the immediate threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. ADG has since successfully delivered over 90% of the initial order and remains on track to complete this original contract on time, by the end of July 2020. Additional future follow-on orders for sustainment filters, hoods and accessories are anticipated. The VA order builds upon ADG’s proven record of dependability as the PAPR system provider of choice for federal agencies.  

ADG’s PPE products have been used by various branches of the U.S. government for over 20 years. In addition to the above HHS and VA contracts, ADG has received over $15 million in non-governmental orders for PPE during the current pandemic. ADG’s emergency response equipment and PPE are utilized by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Strategic Medical Preparedness, FEMA and CDC infectious disease treatment centers.

The Company provides protective equipment to emergency first response teams and hospitals in hundreds of U.S. cities, as well as over 30 countries worldwide. ADG successfully responded during the MERS and Ebola outbreaks, by providing critical protective equipment to government and civilian first response customers.  ADG will continue to engage in the response to the COVID-19 outbreak through the rapid delivery of domestically manufactured PPE and patient isolation systems to the first-responder community.

For more information, please visit  

KiloNiner Pets – FR1 Respirator Mask for Humans

Saturday, July 18th, 2020

KiloNiner Pets has introduced a product for humans, the FR1 Respirator Mask.

It features adjustable ear loops and comes with 4x interchangeable Activated Carbon Filters, a breathing valve and the same color scheme to match your pets Cooling Shemagh.

Get yours at

And oh yeah, Andrew says “Hi” to everyone.


Spectra Group Business Continuity Plans Withstand the Test  

Saturday, July 4th, 2020

Spectra Group (UK) Ltd, the world-leading provider of high-grade information security and communication capabilities, is emerging from the Covid-19 lockdown restrictions confident that their business continuity plans have withstood the considerable challenges faced by the company. Over the last 4 months, Spectra Group has achieved 100% of their sales forecast whilst remaining fully compliant with all Government Guidelines and restrictions.


Throughout the lockdown period, Spectra Group has protected their staff by rapidly implementing IT systems and processes that have enabled the team to work from home, whilst ensuring production and deliveries can continue. Having activated a pre-rehearsed Business Continuity Plan, that included home-working lap-tops for all staff and a rapid switch to Microsoft Teams, Spectra Group experienced a seamless transition to a new way of working. Training for customers, partners and sales representatives continued using virtual methods supported by an accelerated migration to a new VPN endpoint, that was already in the pipeline to maintain compliance with Cyber Essentials.


In the process of manufacturing and delivering significant numbers of SlingShot systems to clients during the lockdown period, Spectra Group has helped sustain jobs across a multitude of companies in their supply chain through the placement of large orders for components, to support production. In terms of customer support, The Network Operations Centre (NOC) was moved to a distributed model to maintain project support and Service Level Agreements (SLAs), with no loss in service.

Spectra Group is best known for its revolutionary Slingshot technology that has become a true game-changer in the world of tactical communications.  SlingShot is a unique system that enables UHF and VHF radios to use L-Band Satellite frequency, allowing users to instantly extend the range of their in-service tactical communications equipment to BLOS (Beyond Line of Sight).  Conceived and designed to meet demanding Special Forces requirements, SlingShot offers a significant number of benefits for users requiring secure, reliable and robust communications on the move (COTM).  Over 3500 SlingShot systems are in operation world-wide in the Manpack, Vehicle, Maritime and Aviation variants.


Simon Davies, CEO of Spectra Group said: “after the initial shock to the system that we all experienced as the lockdown restrictions were rapidly introduced, we got our heads together and moved quickly to implement the changes needed to continue to work, operate and deliver Services to those that continue to keep us safe. I’m exceedingly proud of the fact that we were able to adapt and overcome the challenges we have faced, whilst protecting our staff and all of those around us, supported by our supply chain and partners”. He added: “we’re lucky that we have not been adversely affected by the Covid-19 crisis so far and understanding that this has not been the same for all, I do wish everyone the best as we emerge into the new world and begin to build our lives and businesses back up to and beyond where we were pre-Covid”.

Domestic N95 Mask Production Expected to Exceed 1 Billion in 2021

Sunday, June 28th, 2020

WASHINGTON — Thanks to work by the Defense Department’s COVID-19 Joint Acquisition Task Force, U.S. industry is expected to greatly increase the production of N95 masks next year, the task force’s director said.

During a House Armed Services Committee hearing yesterday, Stacy Cummings told lawmakers that nationally, the U.S. was consuming about 50 million N95 masks each year. During the COVID-19 crisis, demand for masks increased substantially to about 140 million during a 90-day peak-use period.

DOD investments to help domestic industry ramp up production of those masks and other equipment will help ensure that in the future the U.S. will better be able to meet demand for personal protective equipment with domestic production, she said.

Based on the investments made by the department, Cummings told the House panel, an increase in production of 450 million masks a year will be attained by October, with a rate of more than 800 million masks per year by January.

“Starting in 2021, we anticipate our total domestic production to be in excess of a billion per year,” Cummings said.

Ellen Lord, the undersecretary of defense for acquisition and sustainment, told lawmakers that increasing domestic production capabilities has been a focus of the department.

“In order to decrease our dependence on foreign suppliers for medical resources, DOD has focused on increasing domestic industrial capacity and capabilities,” she said. “To that end, we executed some $284 million in industrial expansion efforts during the first two weeks of May 2020. Reconstituting domestic production or creating new production that shifted offshore years ago often requires capital expenditure, capital equipment expenditures, retooling and retraining of the workforce.”

Lord also said DOD has been focused on maintaining the health of the defense industrial base during the COVID-19 pandemic. The DIB includes a wide array of businesses that produce weapons, equipment and supplies for the U.S. military.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, businesses that make up the DIB suffered as other U.S. businesses did, Lord said. Should some of those businesses fail as a result of COVID-19-related disruptions, it might result in the department not being able to procure important defense-related supplies, equipment or weapons, she added.

Lord said the department is using $688 million of CARES Act funding to address impacts to the DIB by directly offsetting financial distress and providing investments to regions most severely affected.

She also said that increased communication between the department and the DIB were key in allowing defense officials to better understand where the industry was hurting most, and where the need existed most. When first she stepped into the A&S leadership role in 2017, she said, she set up quarterly meetings with DIB representatives to better assess their needs. The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated that communication.

“When the pandemic hit and we saw how catastrophic it could be to our defense industrial base, what we did was just really amped up those engagements,” she said. “So starting on March 17, we had our first [teleconference] with industry, and we broadened beyond just the three industry associations that we worked with, to really start including nontraditionals and others.”

The number of industry representatives involved in those meetings also increased, Lord said, “For multiple weeks, we had calls three times a week. One of those calls per week was focused on small business, and we listened to what the problems were,” she said. “As a result of that, … a lot of the leadership of A&S listened to what the issues were, and we tried to start taking the first small steps.”

Lord said as a result of that communication, the department worked to simplify how to do business with the military, including raising the threshold for micropurchases and increasing the progress payment rate from 80% to 90% for large businesses, and from 90% to 95% for small businesses.

“This change will infuse an estimated $3 billion in cash to all levels of the DIB,” Lord said. “Further, the department has partnered with the major primes to ensure this increase in cash makes its way throughout the supply chain.”

By C. Todd Lopez,

Coronavirus Defense: Navy Develops 3D-Printed Tactical Masks for US Forces Korea

Thursday, June 25th, 2020

ARLINGTON, Va. (NNS) — The coronavirus pandemic has caused a global shortage of surgical face masks and other personal protective equipment (PPE), including for warfighters stationed at U.S. Forces Korea.

To address this, the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Global TechSolutions is working with multiple partners to develop prototypes of 3D-printable (also called additive manufactured) masks for use at Camp Humphreys in South Korea.

The prototypes are designed for warfighters needing masks for use with tactical gear like combat helmets and protective visors—security personnel, for example. Printed from medical-grade plastic, with a replaceable filter, the masks form a tighter seal around the nose and mouth. This forces breathed air through the filter only, instead of through gaps between the fabric and skin, reducing infection risk.

“This shows the power of effective collaboration in meeting an urgent need,” said TechSolutions Director Jason Payne. “It enables us to do whatever we can to slow the spread of coronavirus and keep it contained to the best of our ability—so it doesn’t prevent our warfighters from performing their missions.”

TechSolutions is ONR Global’s rapid-response science and technology program that develops prototype technologies to address problems voiced by Sailors and Marines, within approximately 12 months. The PPE collaboration involves the U.S. Army’s Combat Capabilities Development Command, U.S. Forces Korea and the Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Division Keyport.

The project stems from efforts by Mark Buffum, the ONR Global science advisor assigned to U.S. Forces Korea. When the coronavirus pandemic began, South Korea emerged as a hotspot, resulting in PPE shortages throughout that country. Other regions of Asia saw similar shortages, including multiple suppliers to U.S. Forces Korea.

Buffum researched creative ways in which command personnel responded to PPE shortages. He coordinated with the Army’s Combat Capabilities Development Command to leverage a donation of bulk filter material from a Pennsylvania-based manufacturing supplier—as well as a mask design from an Army officer stationed at U.S. Forces Korea—to 3D-print masks. Unfortunately, the “hobby-grade” machine available at Camp Humphreys could only produce seven masks daily. 

Seeking to expand this capability, Buffum contacted TechSolutions and partnered with Payne’s team and NUWC Keyport—which has industrial-grade 3D printers able to manufacture hundreds of masks a day.

TechSolutions agreed to sponsor a project consisting of multiple products:

—Several 3D-printed prototypes for evaluation

—500 3D-printed masks comprising all prototype styles

—Resin molds of the prototypes. Creating masks from resin, instead of medical-grade plastic, enables hobby-grade 3D printers to produce 10 times as many masks each day.

—Technical data packages with instructions for 3D-printing or resin pouring, as well as maintaining mask designs 

U.S. Forces Korea and the Army’s Combat Capabilities Development Command are evaluating the prototype masks. Once they decide on a design, they’ll work with NUWC Keyport to 3D-print large quantities of masks.

“This is a good test of how we can respond to the needs of the fleet in an emergency,” said Ross Wilhelm, principal technologist for NUWC Keyport’s Maintenance, Engineering and Industrial Operations Department. “How many masks can we produce and how fast? We hope this serves as a model for Department of Defense commands worldwide.”

In addition to tactical applications, Buffum hopes to see versions of the masks made for medical personnel and first responders to use during the coronavirus pandemic as well as future health crises.

“These masks can play a key role in strengthening our medical infrastructure of preparedness,” he said. “That way, people won’t be scrambling for supplies at the beginning of another pandemic.”

For more news from Office of Naval Research, visit

Story by Warren Duffie Jr., a contractor for ONR Corporate Strategic Communications.

US Army photo by KCpl. Hanmin Yun. 2ID/RUCD Public Affairs

DoD Identifies Commercial Decontaminant for Field Use Against COVID-19

Saturday, June 20th, 2020

Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD – A chemical and biological decontamination solution improved through testing and evaluation by the Combat Capabilities Development Command (CCDC) Chemical Biological Center has been identified by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) as an effective COVID-19 disinfectant.

Center researchers have been working with Atomes, F.D., a company located in Quebec City, Canada, for more than two years. The Center provided testing and quality assurance to determine the general chemical and biological disinfecting effectiveness of their product, Bioxy. After conducting a literature review to examine disinfection options against COVID-19, DTRA identified Bioxy for use as an effective in-the-field disinfectant against COVID-19 and other viruses, according to Vipin Rastogi, Ph.D., a senior research biologist at the Center.

Rastogi and his group have been testing the effectiveness of Bioxy since the beginning of the Center’s relationship with the company, which led to the DTRA-funded literature review. “Originally, the company had no idea whether it would be effective against chemical or biological agents. They were marketing it as a sanitizer and disinfectant for medical and veterinary clinics,” he said. “Our work with the company was a partnership in which we performed detailed effectiveness testing against chemical and biological agents. We were able to provide Atomes with very specific advice on how to fine tune the product so that it could provide optimal protection to warfighters and the public against a broad range biological agents, spores and viruses.”

The Center research group, led by Rastogi, determined that Bioxy works well against a wide range of chemical and biological agents, as well as the family of viruses which includes the pox virus, Feline calici virus and the Ebola virus. His team performed its testing using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. It is an international regulatory method for determining the efficacy of antimicrobial chemicals against spores, cells and viruses. The method is used by the 37 OECD member nations as well as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, much of industry and many independent laboratories.

“We place 10 microliters of live agent on a glass or steel test surface called a coupon, dry the agent for 45 to 60 minutes, place 50 microliters of Bioxy solution on top of that, then after a 10-minute contact period, add a neutralizer to inactivate the active components of test solution in a vial,” Rastogi explained. “The vial contents are vigorously mixed to retrieve the viable virus particles remaining off the test surface. We then perform a count of the viable organisms remaining.” The effectiveness of the disinfectant is determined by the percentage of change in the number of viable organisms in control coupons compared to those remaining on test coupons.

Chlorine bleach has long been known to be an extremely effective disinfectant; but it is highly corrosive, making it unsuited for disinfecting the sensitive electronic equipment found in military vehicles. Peroxide-based disinfectants such as Bioxy achieve a high level of effectiveness without being caustic. “The active ingredients in Bioxy break the molecular bonds in the virus,” said Rastogi. “Chemical bonds underlying the lipid virus envelope are what give the virus particle its structural integrity, so breaking them renders the virus particle nonfunctional. The active components may also destroy or break down bonds within the DNA or RNA that enables it to reproduce.”

A Powder, Not a Liquid

“Both variants of Bioxy tested, Bioxy H and Bioxy Enviro, provide many practical advantages to its military users because they are powders, and not liquids,” Rastogi said. “Bioxy, marketed as a powder, has three advantages. It’s not corrosive. You can ship it without any fire hazard precautions, and when you need it, you mix it with water and you have a ready-made decontaminant.” It works by generating peroxide when mixed with water.

While Bioxy still requires water to activate the peroxide, the amount of water needed is far less than the hundreds of gallons typically used by decontamination trucks. “We conducted a limited scale study where we tested a 5 percent solution,” Rastogi said. “If you want to translate that to ratios, 5 percent means five parts powder, 95 parts water. But if that much water is not available, you could make a 10 to 25 percent solution.”

Using Bioxy at these higher concentration decontaminates the biological agent with no adverse effects on the Soldier. “It is safe for the skin and is biodegradable,” Rastogi said. “It decomposes to innocuous end products, oxygen and water.”

It is also inexpensive and commercially available for application to warfighters’ personal protective equipment, vehicles, and any other potentially contaminated materials in the field with far less logistical burden than hauling large quantities of water-based decontaminants.

Program Pays Dividends

The relationship between the CCDC Chemical Biological Center and Atomes, F.D. is the product of the Foreign Technology and Science Assessment Support Program, known as FTAS, which is funded by the Office of the Secretary of Defense. It provides seed funding for scientists to perform initial research, technology assessments and test and evaluation studies on promising defense technologies developed in other nations. Participating U.S. Army organizations, such as the Center, select foreign technology initiatives on a competitive basis. Army researchers seeking an FTAS grant submit a proposal which is evaluated by a panel of Army experts, and winning applicants are funded for one year to provide proof their technology’s effectiveness in meeting an Army need.

“Had we not formed this relationship with Atomes, DTRA would have never known about Bioxy and what a valuable broad spectrum disinfectant it is for biological agents,” said Rastogi. “It is very satisfying to know that because of this work, the warfighter and the public have an inexpensive, non-corrosive environmentally safe and highly effective technology in hand.”

“The Center’s use of the FTAS program to contribute to the development of a new technology as useful as Bioxy is a prime example of innovation in action,” said Eric Moore, Ph.D., director of the Chemical Biological Center. “Good ideas are where you find them, and we are glad we pursued this one – doubly so because it turns out that it is proving itself to be an answer to a brand new threat.”

DTRA is now funding Rastogi and his team to test the effectiveness of a number of other commercially available disinfectants to destroy the COVID-19 coronavirus using the OECD method.

By Jack Bunja